He described the possibility of hand held calculators with LCD and actually Sharp sold LCD calculators in 1973; some persons in Sharp were inspired by this book.
And this book describes properties of liquid crystal, how to make LCD devices, and infrared application of Cholesteric LC. By reading this book some of scientists and engineers in universities and companies inaugurated research on liquid crystals and LCDs.
２．Defect free and multicolor TN-LCDs
In 1971, M. Schadt and W. Helfrich published a paper on NT –LCD. Many people were interested in this LCD for low power consumption better than DSM-mode LCD (M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, APL,18, 127-128(1971) (Reference 2).Many people interested in knowing how to make this device in an actual way.
S. Kobayashi and F. Takeuchi reported how to make defect free and multicolor TN –LCD device at SID 1973 and published a paper:
S. Kobayashi and F. Takeuchi“Multi-color field effect liquid crystal display devices” Proc. SID 14/4, (1973) (Reference 3)
Actually, this prototype alpha numeric and color TN-LCD was demonstrated in a laboratory in RIKEN since October 10th, 1972 for one year; and many visitors from all over the prefectures of Japan came to RIKEN to see this demonstration.
This event continued over six month and accounts the number of visitors will be 200 people.
This work done with Mr. Fumio Takeuchi and he became the first engineer on LCD at Toshiba, and RIKEN accepted formal research visiting fellows from several electrical companies to learn how to make TN-LCD.
At that time Dr. Kobayashi developed and invented a rubbing machine for a dry process by adopting a drum wrapped with a fabric; this approach is still currently utilized in production facilities and research laboratory.
At that time, TU of A &T in Kobayashi lab accepted a research fellow from NIKON to install LCDs on camera (this is currently common). For this project Mr. Akira Miyaji from NIKON, stayed in Kobayashi lab to develop defect free TN-LCD and Dr. Kobayashi’s group published a paper:
３．Miyaji. M.Yamaguchi, A.Toda,H.Mada,S.Kobayashi,”Contro and elimination of disclinations in twisted nematic liquid crystal display” IEEE, Trans. Electro. Dev. ED-24/7, 811-815(1977) (Reference4)
４．Defect free STN-LCD
In 1984, T. Scheffer and J. Nehring published a paper on STN-LCD , JAP,45, 1021-1026(1984 )(Reference 5).
STN LCDs are featured by a higher multiplexability over than that of TN-LCD. For this reason many Japanese companies were interested in fabricating this device for making dot matrix LCDs with the higher information content, but no bodies knew how to make a large area defect free STN-LCD except for the existing vacuum deposition technique that is not suitable for large area.
At that time, Dr.Hiroyoshi Fukuro visited Kobayashi lab at TUAT and stayed there as a research fellow. The purpose was to develop a practically use full polyimide for the surface alignment films that are capable of generating a high pre-tilt angles of 7-10 degrees for eliminating the appearance of stripe domains in STN-LCD.
Dr.Kobayashi made a suggestion about the mechanism of the generation of appropriate pre-tilt angles; the idea was that make asymmetric triangles on the substrates in an LCD cell and this can be done by putting alkyl branches on PI surfaces and perform a mechanical rubbing .
This idea was son adopted by Dr. Fukuro and engineers of Nissan Chem. synthesized alkyl moieties contained PI and alkyl branch attached PI .Soon later students of Kobayashi lab and Dr. Fukuro succeeded in demonstrating defect free STN-LCD. They published a paper and made a report at Japan Display in 1986:
H. Fukuro and S. Kobayashi, “Newly Synthesized Polyimide for Aligning Nematic Liquid Crystals Accompanying High Pre-tilt Angles” MCLC 163, 157-162 (1983) (Reference 6),
K. Yoshida, H. Fukuro, S. Kobayashi,” Generation of a High Pre-tilt Angle by Rubbing Technique: Application to Super Twist Nematic Liquid Crystal” Proc.JapaDisplay’86(Oct. Kyoto) 396-399(1986)(Reference 7)
５．Defect free FLCD and Polymer Stabilized V-FLCD
In 1980, N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall published a paper on Surface Stabilized FLCD: APL 36, 899-902(1980)(Reference 8). This pare was attracted a keen interest among scientists and engineers for the fast response with sub-ms.
But soon later it emerged severe problems in the appearance of so called zig-zag defects and unable to make a gray-scale operation.
No bodies were able to solve these problems; but in 1997 group of professor Phil Bos founded out a solution: that is to use a smooth surface for aligning smooth surfaces, what they did was to use polyvinyl films:P. Watson,P.J.Bos ,J.Pirs,PR56/4,R3769-3770(1997).(Reference9).
Soon later Dr. Kobayashi’s group reported a defect free and V shaped switching FLCD:
S. Kataoka, Y. Taguchi, Y. Iimura, H. Hasebe, H.T akatsu,“Liquid Crystal polymer Stabilized FLCDs with Conventional
Polyimide Films and with Photo Alignment Films of Poly Cinnamate” MCLC 229, 233-243(1997) (Reference10); this work was a beginning of work with DIC scientists.
H.Furue, Y.Iimura, Y.Yamamoto, H.Endoh, S.Kobayashi“Fabrication of zig-zag Defect Free Bi-stable SSFLCD by rubbing method: a material Study and physical modelling ” MCLC 328,193-200(1999).(Reference11).
This work was done again with Nisan Chemical Ind. and a beginning of the practical PI with smooth surface and this type of PIs have been widely utilized not only for FLCDs but also current IPS-LCDs.
Dr. Kobayashi’s group also participated in developing use full PIs for active matrix LCDs by having visiting fellow from JSR and together with a PhD student:
M. Nishikawa, K. Sano, T. Miyamoto, Y. Yokoyama. N.Besso,D.-S. Seo, Y. Iimura, S. Kobayashi,” Pre-tilt Angle of Nematic Liquid Crystals on Organic Solvent Polyimide” MCLC 259, 47-53(1995).(Reference 12)
As a further research , Dr. Kobayashi’s research group conducted a R&D on a TFT driven field sequential color(FSC)-LCDs using PSV-FLCD and demonstrated a prototype one with the specification of 4 inch on the diagonal and SVGA(680x600pixels):
T. Fujisawa, I. Nishiyama, K. Hatsusaka, S. Kobayashi ”Field sequential full color LCDs using polymer stabilized V-shaped ferro-electric liquid crystals” Ferroelctrics 364 , 78-85(2008)(Reference 13).
This work was done with engineers at DIC and university students.
This work was done again with Nisan Chem,Ind. and a beginning of the practical PI with smooth surface and this type of PIs have been widely utilized not only for FLCDs but also current IPS-LCDs.
５．Defect free photo-alignment of liquid crystals
Currently, photo-alignment technology is inevitable for fabricating 4kx2k LCD-TVs .Photo-alignment of liquid crystal was inaugurated by Dr.Ichimura7group and Dr. M. Schadt and other groups and Professors Chigrinov and Kwok wrote a excellent book on phto-alignment:
K.Ichimura,Y.Suzuki,T.Seki,A.Hosoki,K.Aoki,Langmuir,4, 1214-1216(1998).(Reference14),M.Schadt and H.Seiberle, J.of SID, 367-370(1997),(Reference15).
V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, H. S. Kwok” Photo-alignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications Wiley,(2008) (Reference16).
Dr. Kobayashi made a report on how one is able to fabricate a defect free photo-aligned LCD with a micro-photograph of the texture of defect free; this work as done together with Stanley Electric team and student:
T.Hashimoto,T.Suguyama,K.Kato,T.Saito,N.Suzuki,Y.Iimura,S.Kobayashi,”TN-LCD with Quartered Sob-pixels using polarized UV-Light Irradiated polymer orientation films”1996,SID Digest of Technical Papers,XXVI,877-880(1905).(Reference17).
This paper is some time quoted by a speaker in a meeting as a milestone paper, since oblique irradiation of UV light on polymer films brings a generation of necessary pre-tilt angle and applied to fabricate four domain TN-LCD called super multi-domain.
６．Nanoparticle doped LCDs exhibit an enhanced electro-optical performances: Application to FSC-NTN-LCD
Nanoparticles are historical common materials such as stained glass (glass/Ag nanoparticles), silicone rubber (Polymer/Aerosil silica), and so forth. However, nanoparticles /liquid crystal systems are current hot topics in an academic meeting,such as International Liquid Crystal Conference 2014, Dublin, Ireland, where 60 papers on nanoparticles/LCs from all over the world were presented.
Dr. Kobayashi’s group reported Carbon-60 doped LCD in 2001:
M. Suzuki, H.Furue, S.Kobayashi ”Polarizerless Nanomaterial Doped Guest-Host LCD Exhibiting High Luminance and Good Legibility” MCLC368, 191-196(2001)(reference18).
And Dr. Kobayashi’s group presented a paper nanoparticles doped LCDs at several SID Symposium and a review paper was published in SID Information Display:
S.Kobayashi,N.Toshima “Nanoparticles and LCDs: Its a surprising world” SID Information Display 29/9, 26-32(2009).(Reference19)
This paper describes “Amplification of capacitance due to a negative dielectric constant in diffusion clouded Ag nanoparticles/NLC at a special low frequency.
Dr.Kobayashi particiared in a Japanese national project: Ministry of Education and Science “NanoLCs/Ymamaguchi Green Materials Cluster” for seven years until 2014.And his team conducted research on FSC-NTN-LCD doped with the nanoparticles of pCyD-ZrO2 (Synthesized by Shiraishi lab,TUS-Y) and Aerosil silica 812 and 300(EVONIK) and the team got several good data, such as reduction of response time for the switching off process by 40% at 0,and fabricated FSC narrow-gap TN(NTN)-LCD through this research theu got the data of Luminance Efficiency(LE)of 5.1cd/W, while existing best LCD –TV has LE of 2.1cd/W; Dr.Kobayshi7s criterion for clearing The Energy Star Program Version 5-3(2012) will be 2.8cd/W.
FSC-Displays have a long history since1950’s, but a flat panel type FSC-LCD was demonstrated in 1985 at SID Symposium:
H. Hasebe and S. Kobayashi “A full color field sequential LCD using modulated backlight” 1985 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers XXI, 81-84(1985) (Reference20).
After that, currently NTN-FSC-LCD s are installed in air-ports such as Narita International airport as indicators , in a few airports in China, and the railway station in Korea rapid trains.
NTN-FSC-LCDs are practically produced in a mass production and featured by the low power consumption and by a high legibility even under the direct sunshine.
During in these projects in every year he organized symposium and he invited one or two Professors from USA, mostly from KSU, Philippine, Malaysia, and from other countries. And he shared time with Professors on his/her sabbatical.
Dr. Kobayashi made contributions to some other fields such as human factors, color space, and other surface alignment technologies such as stretched polymer film . However, all most all above mentioned things are introduced and described in the following book:
PROGRESS IN LIQUID CRYSTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY In Honor of Shunsuke Kobayashi’s 80th Birth Day. Edited by Hoi -Shi Kwok, Shohei Naemura and Hiap Liew Ong. (Reference21)
In this book,Dr. Kobayashi writes Part 1 Reminiscences Introduction “Memories of 43 years of liquid Crystal Research”.
In the Preface, Professor Kwok makes a reference to Dr. Kobayashi: ” He is well known not only for his own groundbreaking research, but also for the training of many prominent figures in the display industry, both in Japan and in other countries”